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Over the past 3 years, the COVID-19 pandemic has affected health systems in sub-Saharan Africa that were already highly burdened by other infectious diseases such as HIV.  Although substantial progress has been made in reducing new HIV infections globally, Africa is still disproportionately affected, accounting for two-thirds of all people living with HIV.  The global target to achieve 95% of HIV testing, treatment, and controlled viral suppression by 2030 requires nuanced and innovative ways of understanding HIV transmission dynamics at the national, regional, and subregional levels, and availability of new treatments and preventive strategies on a broad scale.